Hague Appeals Chamber Reverses Trial Conclusion Against Croatia’s Leaders

From left: General Janko Bobetko, Presidentof Croatia Franjo Tudjman, Croatia's Defence Minister Gojko Susak Croatia - early 1990's Photo: Cropix/Goran Sebelic

From left: General Janko Bobetko,
President of Croatia Franjo Tudjman,
Croatia’s Defence Minister Gojko Susak
Croatia – early 1990’s
Photo: Cropix/Goran Sebelic

The Hague Tribunal ICTY rejected Monday 18 July 2016 the request of the Republic of Croatian to join the appeal case against the six former Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatian senior officials from the 1990’s Herceg-Bosna part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Jadranko Prlic, Bruno Stojic, Slobodan Praljak, Milivoj Petkovic, Valentin Coric and Berislav Pusic. As farcical as the findings were seen by many, the ICTY Trial Chamber did find May 2013 the six men guilty for crimes against humanity and war crimes committed in Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1992 to 1994 and pronounced a total of 111 years imprisonment.

Presiding judge last week, Judge Carmel Agius delivered the Appeal Chamber’s decision denying Croatia’s application to appear as amicus curiae (friend of the court) in the above six men’s appeal proceedings to dispute the Trial Chamber’s conclusions that the six accused participated in a Joint Criminal Enterprise (JCE) and that three Croatia’s officials – first Croatian President Franjo Tudjman, former foreign minister Gojko Susak and Croatian army general Janko Bobetko – were members of that JCE (Joint Criminal Enterprise).

Croatian’s application claimed that the 2013 Trial Chamber verdict violated the right of presumption of innocence under the European Convention on Human Rights of the three Croatian official’s – Tudjman, Susak and Bobetko, who were all deceased at the time ; that the three Croatian officials were innocent of allegation that they were members of JCE and that the Trial chamber’s conclusion is tantamount to “posthumous conviction”.

Six Croats from Herceg-Bosna at ICTY in The Hague, 2013 Photo: ICTY

Six Croats from
Herceg-Bosna
at ICTY in The Hague, 2013
Photo: ICTY

The Appeals Chamber rejected Croatia’s application saying it would not assist the Appeals Chamber in its considerations of questions in issue at the appeal.

However, an unexpected bonus arrived from this application – the Appeal judges articulated their assessment that the original Trial Chamber findings that included conclusion regarding Croatia’s Franjo Tudjman, Gojko Susak and Janko Bobetko do not and cannot amount to a guilty verdict against these three Croatian officials (Full PDF version here):

“…the Appeals Chamber emphasises that findings of criminal responsibility made in a case before the Tribunal are binding only on the accused in a specific case. In this regard, Appeals Chamber observes that the Three Croatian Officials were not indicted or charged in the present case. Furthermore, the Trial Chamber made no explicit findings concerning their participation in the JCE and did not find them guilty of any crimes. Chamber considers that the Trial Chamber’s findings regarding the mere existence and membership of the lCE do not – and cannot – constitute findings of criminal responsibility on the part of any persons who were not charged and convicted in this case. Thus, the Trial Judgment is binding only on the Six Accused, and the presumption of innocence of the Three Croatian Officials is not impacted. The Appeals Chamber further observes that the Tribunal’s jurisdiction is restricted to “natural persons” and the Tribunal does not have the competency to make findings on state responsibility. Accordingly, the Appeals Chamber emphasises that the findings in the Trial Judgment regarding the Three Croatian Officials in no way constitute findings of responsibility on the part of the state of Croatia. The Appeals Chamber therefore finds Croatia’s submissions to be without merit and dismisses them.”

Luka Misetic Photo: Darko Tomas/Cropix

Luka Misetic Photo: Darko Tomas/Cropix

The Appeals Chamber has essentially reversed the findings of the Prlic Trial Chamber about Tudjman, Susak and Bobetko’s alleged participation in a JCE. In a unique procedural maneuver, it did so in the context of a decision to reject an amicus curiae application. Scholars and practitioners of international criminal procedure should take note.

The Appeals Chamber went on to emphasize that “the presumption of innocence of the three Croatian officials is not impacted” by the Prlic Trial Chamber judgment, and furthermore “”the Appeals Chamber emphasizes that the findings in the Trial Judgment regarding the Three Croatian Officials in no way constitute findings of responsibility on the part of the state of Croatia.”

The ICTY Appeals Chamber has thus ruled that President Tudjman, Minister Susak and General Bobetko were not found to be members of a JCE in Bosnia and remain presumed innocent by the ICTY. Prosecutor Ken Scott stated publicly that the Trial Chamber in Prlic was ‘very clear and adamant about the significant role played by Tudjman and Susak’ and that these findings were ‘one of the most historical, remarkable things about the case.’ Those findings are now reversed.
Croatia could not have hoped for a better result from the Appeals Chamber even if the Appeals Chamber had granted Croatia amicus status,” says the US based, well-known attorney Luka Misetic.

This decision at the ICTY Appeals Chamber blows right out of the water the wild and evil claims that Croatia’s plan at the time was to create a Greater Croatia by joining to it the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina known as Herceg-Bosna and, hence, concluded that Croatia’s leaders were members of the JCE that was to achieve this goal. The Hague Prosecution did accuse the Six Croats of participating in a joint criminal enterprise that was intended to “permanently remove and ethnically cleanse Bosnian Muslims and other non-Croats” from the territory of the newly-established Herceg-Bosna, which they wanted to attach to a planned “Greater Croatia”. Now that the Appeal Chambers have found last week that Croatian leaders were not members of that JCE as Trial Chamber maintained it would stand to reason and truth that any Greater Croatia could not be created without Croatia. Appeal Chamber’s decision with regard to the Herceg-Bosna Six Croats is expected around November 2017. Given that many have considered the 2013 Trial Chamber verdict against them a farce and an utterly unfair and unjust, one awaits the outcome of the appeal with intense interest as it could turn the tides towards actual justice and truth and point to a different picture of the conflict between the Croats and Muslims in 1990’s in Bosnia and Herzegovina than the one painted by the ICTY Trial Chamber verdict. We can only pray for now. Ina Vukic, Prof. (Zgb); B.A., M.A.Ps. (Syd)


Original Article: https://inavukic.com/2016/07/27/hague-appeals-chamber-reverses-trial-conclusion-against-croatias-leaders/

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#Brittius say those were the days when people cared for each other and looked after their neighbour and their community – so much for progress. I terribly dislike this 21st century

I grew up in New York City, borough of Brooklyn (Kings County, NY). I remember all of the women would literally scrub the sidewalk with scouring powdered soap and scrub brushes. Everything sparkled, and the community was mostly longshoremen. Street gutters, swept by homeowners and residents.

Everyone was polite. Children, especially myself, were kept in line by any adult, and we were kept away from crime.

Today, the place is filthy. All new people, and obviously, they care nothing of the streets where everyone knew one another by first and last names, and knew entire families for generations.

Streets, though periodically cleaned by city mechanical broom, are dirty.

Everything black with pollution. Children openly use foul language.

Crime is nested within the area. An uncle of mine, would take me on the tug boat with him, he was a captain, to keep me away from the streets and unsavory elements. I remember old mariners building wooden ships inside of bottles to sell. It’s all gone.

As you say, so much for progress. I terribly dislike this 21st century.

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VALUABLE SMOKE: Artist helps China turn smog into diamonds

VIJAY SHAH via World Economic Forum

Smog is probably one of the most useless… and dangerous things known to humanity. The thick all-enveloping clouds of chemical particulates, water vapour, smoke and other atmospheric ingredients kills thousands of people globally per year, causes disruption to traffic and the economy and is an inescapable hazard to sufferers of breathing problems such as asthma. But now, in the notoriously polluted cities of China, they are not only fighting back, but are making a tidy profit from it too.

China has some of the most polluted aerial environments on earth. With a 1 billion-plus population and rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, as well as a determined quest to become a major world superpower, the country’s citizens pay the price for China’s great march to prosperity, enduring extremely high smog levels owing to the proliferation of factories, industrial units and slash-and-burn farming creating smoke which blows in from the countryside. In some large cities, including the capital Beijing, smog occurs almost on a daily basis, and is particularly evident in the summer months. One nationwide smog incident in late 2015 sparked red alerts and health warnings in ten cities, and the dirty air is thick enough to reach California, thousands of miles away in the Pacific.

However an artist from the Netherlands has proposed a novel solution that could not only rid cities in China, and in other rapidly developing nations, of their peasoupers, but also provide a boost to the diamond industry, turning a killer into a sparkler.

Dutch national Daan Roosegaarde is the in-charge of the Smog Free Project. The premise of the project is simple. First erect a seven metre tall tower which looks like it was made from window blinds and resembles a portly windmill. The tower draws in the polluted air and purifies it. As it does so, the carbon from the smog is extracted and compressed into carbon, the building blocks for organic life and the core ingredient of diamonds. The tower transforms the carbon dust into valuable gems, in a process that takes just thirty minutes. Beijing’s smog alone is 32 per cent carbon particulates, which will mean a lot of gems. The towers are, not surprisingly considering the background of their designer, influenced by Dutch architectural styles, and are intended to not look too obtrusive or space-consuming, a form of functional urban sculpture.

Speaking at the World Economic Forum’s Annual Meeting of the New Champions, Roosegaarde told the assembled delegates and press: “It started with a dream,”

“The dream of clean air for everyone.”

The idea for the Smog Free Project first formed in Roosegaarde’s imagination when he was observing Beijing’s notorious smog from a hotel window.

“On Saturday, I could see the world around me, the cars, the trees, the people. But on Wednesday it was completely covered in smog, with pollution, and that image made me a little bit sad.”

Determined to free people from being forced to stay inside during smoggy days and to give them freedom to breathe safe air, he began planning the project.

Tests done in Beijing have shown the technology does work. Areas where the towers were tested were found to have air 70 to 75 per cent cleaner than places which did not have them. The success of the tests was picked up on by Beijing’s city government who have decided to endorse the artist’s project. Roosegaarde will now tour other cities in China to display the virtues and benefits of the towers.

The diamonds produced by the Smog Free Project will be used in jewellery making and the profits made ploughed back into the project, particularly in funding the construction of more towers.

Beijing, CHINA
SOURCES/VIDEO CREDIT:
World Economic Forum, Facebook, Facebook Inc. https://www.facebook.com/worldeconomicforum/
“Why turning China’s smog into diamonds isn’t as crazy as it sounds” – Rachel Hallett, World Economic Forum – Industry Agenda (27 June 2016) https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/06/why-turning-smog-into-diamonds-isn-t-as-crazy-as-it-sounds?utm_content=buffer507f2&utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook.com&utm_campaign=buffer
Rosa Ortiz.

Original Article: https://halfeatenmind.wordpress.com/2016/07/26/valuable-smoke-artist-helps-china-turn-smog-into-diamonds/

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Climate Change ! / Jihadism.

“””” Lack Of Intelligence Is The Greatest Poverty”””

—————————————————————–

Today,the American secretary of state Mr.John Kerry who is in Canada,

with other Western politicians discussing the effect of climate change .

Mr. Kerry said ,Air Conditions are killing more people than ISIS.

Air Conditions had saved millions of certain death from heat waves since,

The early 20th. century.ISIS since 2014 have killed thousands of people.

“”The incompetent politicians claim that climate change hurts the Agricultural

Crops which leads to hunger and poverty which encourages the young

people in poor countries to join the Islamic Terrorism and ISIS.”””

This is absurd ,these young Muslims join terrorism and Jihadism because its one of

Islam’s teaching. Jihadism is a duty of every Muslim believes in the Islamic book THE KORAN.

Jihadists use intimidation and terror to subdue people to surrender to Islam.

Jihadism’s mission Is to eradicate the non Muslims and conquer the world.

Climate Change did not kill people in Paris, San Bernardino ,Dhaka , Florida,Istanbul ,today in Germany 2 terrorist attacks.Climate Change does not recruit suicide bombers .

Jalal Michael Sabbagh

Original Article: https://mysuccessisyoursuccess.wordpress.com/2016/07/26/climate-change-jihadism/

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Editors Notes:

I would remind you that this blog is produced free for the public good and you are welcome to republish or re-use this article or any other material freely anywhere without requesting further permission.

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Who is DNC Chair Maria Fudge

It is now the turn for the Democrats to make speeches and put their issues and plans out there for the American people to think about. Al Gore will not becoming and I am disappointed. But I am looking forward to Bernie’s speech and to what the Democratic leaders have to say. I will be listening closely to Hillary. I am waiting to hear about Mother Earth, Unions, trade agreements, making all Americans free and equal. I want to hear how we will adjudicate criminal sentences fairly. I want to hear that women will finally become legally equal and that Human Trafficking will be taken out of the shadows and made a major felony.I Want to hear that there will be more funding for Domestic Violence shelters. I want more community education on how to stop violence in the home and in the community. I could give you a long wish list but I am going to listen to the speeches. May America be blessed with what it needs most.

Namaste,

Barbara

Who is DNC Chair Marcia Fudge?

by LAUREN VICTORIA BURKE

Image: US-VOTE-DEMOCRATS-CONVENTION

Congresswoman Marcia Fudge (C) gestures to the crowd as she speaks during Day 1 of the Democratic National Convention at the Wells Fargo Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, July 25, 2016.SAUL LOEB / AFP – Getty Images

As Rep. Marcia Fudge stepped into an unexpected role today as Chair of the Democratic National Convention, she made it her business to open the official procedures with a command for unity and respect.

“We’re all Democrats and we need to act like it,” began the congresswoman from Ohio, who also promised a “different kind of convention than the one we saw last week.”

Congresswoman Marcia Fudge will gavel sessions in at the start of business and close business at the end of the night. Though Fudge says she was made Chair weeks before an e-mail controversy ended DNC Chair Debbie Wasserman Schultz’s time as head of the DNC, Fudge will now take center stage.

“I know there are many of you in this room who don’t know me,” Rep. Fudge said to the thousands of delegates gathered in the arena. “I intend to be fair, I want to hear the varying opinions here. I’m gong to be respectful of you, and I want you to be respectful of me.”

Fudge, 63, is no stranger to leadership roles. She served as the the first African American and the first female Mayor of Warrensville Heights, Ohio from 2000 to 2008 and before that she was a prosecutor. Fudge was the President of one of the oldest African American sororities, Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, from 1996 to 2000. In 2008, after the sudden death of Rep. Stephanie Tubbs Jones, Fudge was elected to Congress and in 2013 she was elected Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus.

Image: Democratic National Convention: Day One

Donna Brazile gives a thumbs up during the first day of the Democratic National Convention at the Wells Fargo Center, July 25, 2016 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. An estimated 50,000 people are expected in Philadelphia, including hundreds of protesters and members of the media.Jessica Kourkounis / Getty Images

“We have three Black women now running this convention: Rep. Marcia Fudge, Donna Brazile and Leah Daughtry,” Melanie Campbell, President of the National Coalition of Black Civic Participation, told NBCBLK.

Donna Brazile is the interim DNC Chair.

Leah Daughtry is the CEO of the Convention for the second time, having held the role for the first time in Denver in 2008. In an interview with NBCBLK in November, Daughtry promised “the most diverse and the most forward-looking convention that we’ve had in recent history.”

“I’m prepared. I do believe that we will have some people who may not be pleased with what is going on, we anticipate that… I’ve been around here for the last few days, I’ve heard the disruptions so I don’t think it’s going to be any different once we get inside the hall,” Rep. Fudge told NBC News’ Alexandra Jaffe today. Yesterday there was a well attended rally at Philadelphia’s City Hall in support of Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-VT). Tonight Sanders will address the convention.

leah daughtry

Democratic National Convention Committee CEO Rev. Leah Daughtry at Minuteman Press in South Philadelphia on October 15.Paul Coker Photography LLC

Colleagues and those in the advocacy community know Fudge well.

“Marcia Fudge has been a fighter and a warrior for African Americans and all Americans for justice. Even before coming to Congress and she’s continued that tradition fighting for working people, fighting for women and the underdog. It’s not really a surprise that at a time of great crisis in our nation she was chosen to Chair this great convention,” Rev. Barbara Williams Skinner told NBCBLK.

“Marcia Fudge has so many capabilities that every time I see an opportunity for her to excel I say I wish the whole nation and the world would know her as well as I do. She’s good,” said Rep, Charlie Rangel (D-NY) to NBCBLK during an interview in downtown Philadelphia.

“She has a great legislative record. She’s well thought of and well respected,” said NAACP President Cornell Brooks before speaking on a panel on the Black agenda in Philly.

“I think we just need to run our convention and let the email scandal take care of itself. I can’t get into it, I haven’t even read the emails, thank goodness, so I can’t even discuss them with you. I just want us to do what Democrats do, we’re gonna run the convention, we’re gonna make sure that everybody understands that it’s fair, that everyone has an opportunity to say what they want to say, and we’re gonna move forward,” Fudge told NBC today.

America's Liberty Bell; Philadelphia, Pennsylvanis

America’s Liberty Bell; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Original Article: https://idealisticrebel.com/2016/07/25/who-is-dnc-chair-maria-fudge/

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Communist Yugoslavia Verdict Against Croatia’s Blessed Aloysius Stepinac Quashed

Zagreb County Court Friday 22 July 2016 centre: Judge Ivan Turudic, presiding Quashed 1946 communist Verdict against Blessed Aloysius Stepinac Photo: HINA/ Damir Sencar/ds

Zagreb County Court Friday 22 July 2016
centre: Judge Ivan Turudic, presiding
Quashed 1946 communist Verdict
against Blessed Aloysius Stepinac
Photo: HINA/ Damir Sencar/ds

A true, brilliant face of justice stepped out into the streets of Croatia and the world last Friday!
On 22 July 2016 Zagreb Country Court issued a judgment of great historical and political importance, announcing the complete annulment of the sentence against the archbishop of Zagreb, Aloysius Stepinac, passed by the politically rigged communist Yugoslav court 70 years ago, in October 1946.
The Zagreb County court in Croatia, a panel of judges presided over by Judge Ivan Turudic, annulled, quashed the 1946 communist Yugoslavia treason conviction against Archbishop Aloysius Stepinac, ruling that he did not receive a fair trial. Belgrade (Serbia) driven anti-Croat hoards, whose mission was to ensure that Croatia was the only Yugoslav federation state to be made responsible for the crimes of the holocaust on Yugoslav soil despite the fact that as a result of having exterminated 94% of Serbian Jews by mid-1942 Serbia’s WWII regime had been among the first European states “judenfrei” (Jew-free), had in 1946 charged and convicted Stepinac with crimes of collaboration with the pro-Nazi Ustashe regime.

Dr Esther Gitman (centre) presents Archbishop Aloysius (Alojzije) Stepinac to EU Parliament conference June 2016 Photo: eppgroup.eu

Dr Esther Gitman (centre)
presents Archbishop Aloysius (Alojzije) Stepinac
to EU Parliament conference
June 2016
Photo: eppgroup.eu

In less than a month from the indictment, the communist People’s Court of Croatia found him guilty on all counts, and the verdict was handed down on October 11, 1946. Stepinac was found guilty on all charges. He received a sentence of 16 years of hard labor.
In 1950 a group of American Senators made freedom for Archbishop Stepinac a condition for American aid to Yugoslavia. Tito (Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito), eager to improve his relationship with the West, agreed to the deal with one stipulation: Stepinac must leave the country. Similarly, requests were made also by Pavelic (Ante Pavelic, leader of WWII Independent State of Croatia), in both cases, Stepinac refused to leave arguing he would remain with his people unless they take him by force.
Finally, in December 1951, Josip Broz Tito ordered Stepinac’s release, but sentenced him to house arrest in his native village of Krasic. In 1953, when he was elevated to Cardinal by pope Pius XII, When reporters asked him whether he will leave for that occasion he replied: ‘As long as Croatia is not free, the whole country is my prison.’ ‘My place is in Croatia with my people, not in the Vatican,” Dr Esther Gitman quote at EU Parliament presentation from Nova Hrvatska (New Croatia), 30 Fleet Street, London E. C. 4, England, February 1960, p. 1. Dr Esther Gitman is a leading world researcher of WWII archive facts that indisputably place Archbishop Aloysius (Alojzije) Stepinac as one of the leading rescuers of Jews and all other persecuted ethnic groups such as Serbs and Roma in WWII Independent State of Croatia. Indeed, in June 2011 Pope Benedict XVI praised Cardinal Stepinac as a courageous defender of those oppressed in Croatia during WWII, including Serbs, Jews and gypsies/Roma.

In February 1992 the parliament of Croatia had passed a “declaration of condemnation of the political process and judgment against Cardinal Dr Aloysius Stepinac” (click on link for pdf of the Declaration), which states that he was convicted as an innocent person “for having rejected the communist powers’ orders to bring about a schism in the Church and bring about the separation of the Croatian Catholic Church from Rome and Vatican, which had the far-reaching goal of the destruction of the Catholic Church as the eternal keeper and protector of Croatian people’s identity and freedom.
He was convicted because he stood against aggression and crimes of the communist regime, just as, in the storm and cruelties of WWII, he acted to protect the persecuted, regardless of their ethnic origins or religious outlooks. Although the Croatian people and the Catholic Church had never accepted the judgment against Archbishop Stepinac, the Croatian Parliament, as the highest representative body of Croatia, by expressing its clear position towards the unjust judgment against Cardinal Stepinac now corrects an historic injustice and insult against the Croatian people.
By condemning the show-trial and judgment against Archbishop Stepinac, the Croatian Parliament does at the same time condemn the political trials against numerous innocent priests, monks and believers as well as condemning the communist regime.”

Having overturned the 1946 verdict against Stepinac, Judge Ivan Turudic read the court’s findings, which concluded that the 1946 trial had violated the right to a fair trial, prohibition of forced labour and the right to appeal. He said the goal of that verdict had been “revenge against Stepinac“.
The judge said that the rigged politically motivated trial against Stepinac, violated the right to a fair trial as well as rules of the law-based state.

Archbishop Aloysius Stepinac in the 1946 communist rigged trial

Archbishop Aloysius Stepinac in the 1946
communist rigged trial

Judge Turudic said that it was evident from the minutes of the 1946 trial that prosecution’s witnesses had been instructed how to charge the defendant.
The fundamental crime Stepinac was charged with was the fact that he was at the time of NDH (WWII Independent State of Croatia) the Archbishop of Zagreb. He himself asked at the trial ‘Well, what was I supposed to do? Go into a forest or escape to London?’ He decided to remain with his people with whom he also remained during the Yugoslav Kingdom dictatorship and during Tito’s communist dictatorship,” Judge Turudic said. Turudic also said that while in prison Stepinac was offered to sign a pardon form issued by the communist authorities but that he refused the offer, instead, Stepinac asked for a re-trial before an independent court or the quashing of the verdict. Of course, such a request was refused.

Judge Turudic said the 1946 trial was a “rigged political process.”

After 70 years his will is fulfilled by the Croatian court in a free Croatian state and that is why this judgment has profound importance not only for the individual but also for the history of the Croatian people,” Judge Turudic concluded.

Boris Stepinac nephew of Blessed Aloysius Stepinac Photo: tportal.hr

Boris Stepinac
nephew of Blessed Aloysius Stepinac
Photo: tportal.hr

I’m very moved, I didn’t expect it would be resolved so quickly. I thank the Croatian judiciary for finally removing the stain which for years was not only put on the cardinal, but on the Catholic Church, the family, and the whole Croatian nation as well,” Cardinal Stepinac’s nephew who instigated the legal process for the review of the 1946 verdict, Boris Stepinac, told Croatian news media after the judgment was read out in the court. “Today, documents and arguments proved in a court that he was indeed a righteous man,” he added.

Cardinal Aloysius Stepinac

Cardinal Aloysius Stepinac

As expected the ruling fuelled protests and criticisms against Croatia, renewed false and hateful allegations that this ruling amounts to rehabilitation of the WWII Ustashe regime in Croatia. Such false allegations are concocted and propagated by the very top of Serbia’s leadership and its president Tomislav Nikolic stated that Stepinac was not tried and convicted in WWII Independent State of Croatia or today’s independent Croatia but in Yugoslavia, suggesting that Croatia had no jurisdiction to judge on judgment delivered in Yugoslav courts. This protest is enough to demonstrate how hopeless pursuits of truth and justice still are in Serbia. So, I choose to ignore any criticism on the matter coming from Serbia for Serbia’s leadership is evidently still incapable of separating true justice from political set-ups. Nikolic further stated that he relayed his opinion regarding Stepinac’s role in WWII to Pope Francis and I do trust that opinion has ended up where it came from: the dungeons of dangerous hatred against Croats Nikolic and his followers had demonstrated many a time, including during the genocidal Serb aggression against Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1990’s.

Blessed Alojzije (Aloysius) Stepinac Oil painting Croatian Church Chicago

Blessed Alojzije (Aloysius) Stepinac
Oil painting Croatian Church Chicago

In 1998 the late Pope John Paul II beatified Stepinac – putting him on the road to sainthood – during a visit to Croatia. While Pope Francis seemingly procrastinates as to the date when Aloysius Stepinac will be canonised and declare a Saint of the Catholic Church, the majority of Croatian people already regard him as a Saint.

Cardinal Josip Bozanic, celebrating the Eucharist, said in Zagreb on 25 June 2016: "God has already celebrated the sainthood of Aloysius Stepinac, and whoever goes against his image, goes against God". Photo: laudato,hr

Cardinal Josip Bozanic, celebrating the Eucharist,
said in Zagreb on 25 June 2016:
“God has already celebrated
the sainthood of Aloysius Stepinac,
and whoever goes against his image,
goes against God”.
Photo: laudato,hr

This Friday 22 July 2016 judgment from the Zagreb County Court clearly shows that justice is always reachable; that truth prevails in the end and justice wins. All we need is patience and persistence for the truth and in that spirit I would like to see a posthumous trial against Josip Broz Tito for all the crimes of his communism against innocent people and pray that somehow, in a brilliant world of the future, this will be judicially possible. Ina Vukic, Prof. (Zgb); B.A., M.A.Ps. (Syd)

Original Article: https://inavukic.com/2016/07/24/communist-yugoslavia-verdict-against-croatias-blessed-aloysius-stepinac-quashed/

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Editors Notes:

I would remind you that this blog is produced free for the public good and you are welcome to republish or re-use this article or any other material freely anywhere without requesting further permission.

News & Views welcome always published as long as NO bad language or is not related to subject matter.

To keep online information secure, experts recommend keeping your social media accounts private, changing your passwords often, and never answering unsolicited emails or phone calls asking for your personal information. Need help and guidance visit https://acepchelp.wordpress.com and leave a comment

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France in North Africa

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Le Vendeur de peau, Jean-Léon Gérôme (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

I edited parts of the article I posted on 18 July and did so a few hours after it was posted. I had sensed a connection between the result of the Brexit referendum and the 2016 Nice attack, but also felt there was a difference. The connection was the “send them back” printed on the shirts of certain British pro-leave voters. France’s Front National‘s is an anti-immigration political party. Britain does not have an anti-immigration or nativist political party, in which it differs from France. However, some leave voters thought, or we led to think, that leaving the European Union meant excluding immigrants.

The Runners of the Pasha, Jean-Léon Gérôme (New York Historical Society Arnaut with two wippet dogs, Jean-Léon Gérôme (Pinterest)

French colonialism

One may wonder why France has been targeted by terrorists three times in the last two years:

These attacks cannot be explained in any satisfactory manner. They are barbarie and senseless, Let<s give love a chance.

However, these attacks may be associated with France’s history as a colonial power. It was in North Africa, Algeria especially. Algiers was captured in 1830, Tunisia was conquered in 1881, and Morocco was a French protectorate from 1912 to 1950.

A long time ago, these countries were inhabited by Berbers. However, Algeria fell to the Arabs (7th century CE) and then to the Ottoman Empire (1560-1830), often referred to as the Turkish Empire. The French captured Algiers in 1830 and walked out of Algeria under Charles de Gaulle. On 18 March 1962, de Gaulle declared the cease-fire that ended the Algerian War (1954-1962). Below is a video of his speech.

http://fresques.ina.fr/de-gaulle/fiche-media/Gaulle00076/declaration-du-18-mars-1962-cessez-le-feu-en-algerie.html FR

However, the violence continued after the cease-fire. Algerians were massacred and the French were the victims of terrorists. Approximately 800,000 Pied-Noirs had to flee to France. Pied-Noirs (literally black feet) is the name given French settlers in North Africa. They had lived in Algeria for a long time, several generations. Moreover, many Algerians had been educated in France and identified with France.

France remained a target. You may remember Air France Flight 8969. The anti-terror unit of the National Gendarmerie killed all four hijackers without further loss of life among passengers and the plane’s crew. Three passengers had been killed by the hijackers. France has been attacked several times. (See List of Terrorist Incidents in France, Wikipedia.)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_France_Flight_8969

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Gendarmerie

There are Berbers to this day in North Africa, in the Atlas Mountains in particular, but the population of Algeria was Arabised and so was, to a greater or lesser extent, the population of Tunisia and, less so, Morocco. However, North-African terrorists are Arabised Berbers. The Arab Spring began in Tunisia, on 18 December 2010.

Although ISIL has claimed responsibility for the 2016 Nice attack, the attacker, Mohamed Lajouif-Bouhlel, lived in France, but was born in Tunisia. The Kouachi brothers (Charlie Hebdo, January 2015) were born in Paris of Algerian parents, but they were radicalized in the Middle East. In France, colonialism and terrorism may therefore be related.

http://www.euronews.com/2016/07/16/isil-claims-responsibility-for-nice-truck-attack-which-killed-at-least-84-people-during-bastille-day-celebrations-amaq-news-agency

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3697480/Smiling-just-hours-attack-Bastille-Day-killer-takes-SELFIE-terror-truck-used-murder-84.html

Therefore, when members of the Front National claim that France cannot be multicultural, nativism, they are expressing their determination not to admit Muslim immigrants into France. At the moment, Muslims migrants are flooding Europe. ISIL and the Syrian Civil War have wreaked havoc on the Middle East and are taking a toll on Europe.

The result of the Brexit referendum may reflect the nativism advocated by the Front National.

Marine Le Pen in Quebec

Marine Le Pen visited Quebec recently. A large number of Canadians are refugees or the descendants of refugees, and many are immigrants or the descendants of immigrants. Consequently, although it can only welcome a limited number of Syrian refugees, 25 thousand, the majority of Canadians do not see Syrian refugees as potential terrorists or as persons who will drain Canada’s social programmes. That has not been the case so far.

Such is not Marine Le Pen’s opinion. She believes immigrants are impoverishing France and, in an interview with Ici Radio-Canada‘s Anne-Marie Dussault, Madame Le Pen stated that terrorists had entered France with the flow of migrants. She was warning Canadians.

http://ici.radio-canada.ca/audio-video/media-7464448/entrevue-danne-marie-dussault-avec-marine-le-pen-a-2460 FR

Canadian civil servants flew to Jordan to screen the Syrians who have entered their country and it picked them up in refugee camps. In fact, Quebec is attempting to transform its immigrants into French-speaking Québécois. It may or may not work, but meanwhile Quebec is building bridges.

http://www.immigration-quebec.gouv.qc.ca/en/informations/FrenchSpellsSuccess/index.html?utm_campaign=CSPQ_%3A_MIDI_Francisation_%3A_Ete_2016&utm_source=1668865%5EPost_Media%5Emontrealgazette.com%5Enews_et_local_news&utm_content=300×250%5EmidiEN&utm_medium=banner

Conclusion

France has been attacked because of its former colonial empire, which included Indochine (Vietnam). So it has trained personnel to deal with crisis, its Gendarmerie’s Intervention and crisis management unit (GIGN). It is its SWAT unit. It is otherwise protected, but terrorist acts are difficult to prevent. Who would have thought that someone would rent a 19-tonne truck and drive it through a crowd watching a fireworks display.

This act of hate did however bring grist to Marine Le Pen’s mill. I listened to several interviews last weekend. Members of the Front National seemed disturbingly pleased to add this grim trophy to their collection.

Marine Le Pen could be the next President of France.

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© Micheline Walker
21 July 2016
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Original Article: https://michelinewalker.com/2016/07/21/france-in-north-africa/

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